Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Newmans sermon on the feast of St. Monica in the year 1856

In the sermon Intellect, the Instrument of Religious Training, John Henry Newman persuades his congregation that intellectual knowledge and religion should not be alienated (Newman 85). Newman is an icon in the history of the Church of England. He was a priest and an intellect. He wrote several religious articles in the 19th century (Hasson 1). Newman was a key founder of the Catholic University of Ireland.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Newman’s sermon on the feast of St. Monica in the year 1856 specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The above-mentioned sermon was delivered at the University Church, Dublin in 1856 (Guiley 65). In the sermon, Newman explores the risk of self-sufficiency, which is the notion that an individual can exist without God. Academic tone, analogy, comparison, and similes are the techniques employed by Newman to deliver a strong and persuasive sermon. This rhetorical analysis paper focus es on Newman’s sermon on the feast of St. Monica in the year 1856. Based on the sermon’s delivery location, the sermon was conveyed to university students and staff. The sermon was delivered to individuals who shared different views with the preacher. In his sermon, Newman believes that a number of intellects separate intellectual knowledge from religion. He persuades them that the two fields should not be separated, and that they have coexisted peacefully from time immemorial (Ker 67). Newman was very knowledgeable with his subject. This gave him the adequate credibility to convince his congregation that religion and intellect should not be separated. As such, he notifies the congregation that his sermon do not dispute the common doctrines held by intellects. According to his arguments, the differences between religion and intellect have resulted in controversies. His main wish is for the two fields to unite and coexist in harmony (Ker 67). He is successful at convinc ing undergraduates about the importance of religion in their lives. His opinions were well organized and they were made more appealing with the use of logos and pathos. Newman commences his sermon using an analogy to aid the audience understanding of the character of St. Monica. He asserts that St. Monica was not a teacher, evangelist, or a bishop and did not own an office, but was a widow who spent sleepless nights praying and wandering for her son to be brought back to life. Similarly, Newman asserts that after her son was brought back to life, he did not only become a saint but also a physician. Through this stylistic device, the preacher is able to put across the character of St. Monica by using the blueprint of teacher, evangelist, bishop, and administrator as a starting point for understanding her identity. Similarly, Newman conveys the son’s identity by using the blueprint of a saint and a doctor as a way of revealing his personality.Advertising Looking for essay on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through this, the preacher is able to create a psychological link between the different personalities in the minds of the congregation to help them come up with an understanding between the two saints in an easy and concise manner. Analogies such as those used by the preacher are enjoyable and are likely to cheer up the mood of the sermon. Similarly, it enables the congregation to relate the characters of the two saints with their personal experiences. Soon after attracting the congregation’s interest with the use of analogies, Newman begins to use similes. He asserts that Christians, in their preference of a gospel for the Feast of St. Monica, have associated the woman with the depressed widow whom Jesus encountered at the entrance to the city. Similarly, in the subsequent paragraphs the preacher likens the widow with the Holy Church that is always mourning over its mis placed siblings. The preacher uses similes to make his illustrations about the modern church and the widow more emphatic. Several examples of similes in the sermon illustrate how the Holy Church and the Widow are similar, especially in the manner in which they mourn over their lost children. The sermon asserts that age after age St. Monica’s son is born with ambition making him a victim of sin. Similarly, age after age St. Monica laments over his child. The child she has grown up with, wandered with her, and kept his name in her lips. In the same way the widow is lamenting, the preacher asserts that the church is lamenting over intellectuals who have been lost and are hurrying towards the path of destruction. Like the widow, the Holy Church has not lost hope over these individuals, as it is always praying for them. Nearly halfway to the sermon, the preacher tells his congregation that he is excited that the Academic Worship Day falls on the Feast of Saint Monica. He further a sserts that the chief purpose of the university and religion is to supply what Saint Monica wanted and always yearned to achieve through her prayers. Through this, he manages to appeal to those who are against the mixture of academics and religion and informs them of the chief purpose of the sermon. He achieves trust from the congregation by informing them of the achievements science could accomplish in the modern age. He asserts that science could invalidate knowledge against itself; make a fact to contradict another fact, and influence humanity that to be spiritual an individual ought to be uninformed and to be scholar one ought to be unspiritual. He wins their trust by emphasizing on their potentials. Thereafter, he employs pathos to appeal to the feelings of his audience that humans are intellectual and moral. He asserts that humans are intellectual to the extent that they safeguard the truth, and safeguard the morality to the extent that they defend duty. He refers to the excel lence of the intellect as skill and talent, and refers to the excellence of moral nature as a virtue.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Newman’s sermon on the feast of St. Monica in the year 1856 specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thereafter, he asserts that the human being’s mind is made up of several faculties. According to him, these faculties and their powers have been separated for a very long period that most people believe it cannot be united (Lorimer 68). Through this, he aims at appealing to his congregation that the above powers and faculties can be combined peacefully. At this instance, the congregation sees how philosophers have continually lied to them that science and religion should be separated. At the beginning of the eighth paragraph, the preacher poses a question to his audience. He asks them if they confess to the truth of his words and if not their curiosity has let them to the pat h of sin. He establishes his ethos or credibility of setting up higher institutions by stating that his sole purpose is to unite things that had been earlier joined by God and later alienated by human beings. Newman informs his audience that he was not after refuting the common doctrines held by intellects. He informs them that he wants intellect and religion to enjoy an equal freedom without compromising on the others existence. According to his arguments, the differences between the fields have resulted in confusions. His main wish is for the two fields to unite and coexist in harmony. In conclusion, it should be noted that the sermon effectively persuades his congregation that intellectual knowledge and religion should not be alienated. Newman was able to achieve this because he was very knowledgeable with his subject. This gave him the adequate credibility to convince his congregation that religion and intellect should coexist as one. He is successful at convincing undergraduate s about the importance of religion in their lives. Equally, He asserts that the chief purpose of the university and religion is to supply what Saint Monica always yearned to achieve through her prayers. Through this, he manages to appeal to those who are against the mixture of academics and religion and informs them of the chief purpose of the sermon. He achieves trust from the congregation by informing them of the achievements science could accomplish in the modern age. His opinions were well organized and they were made more appealing with the use of logos and pathos. He establishes his ethos or credibility of setting up higher institutions by stating that his sole purpose is to unite things that had been earlier joined by God and later alienated by human beings. However, his arguments might not be appealing to the modern scholars as it did during its time (Cassidy 112). Works Cited Cassidy, Peter. The development and use in a study of an instrument to measure teacher’s per ceptions of their effectiveness in teaching Catholic moral principles to middle and upper secondary students. New York: Oxford University, 1994. Print.Advertising Looking for essay on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Guiley, Rosemary. The encyclopedia of saints. New York, NY: Facts on File, 2001. Print. Hasson, Thomas. â€Å"Sermons Preached on Various Occasions – Sermon 1.† Newman Reader. N.p., 4 Jan. 2007. Web. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/occasions/sermon1.html. Ker, I. T.. John Henry Newman: a biography. New York : Oxford University Press: Oxford ;, 2009. Print. Lorimer, George C.. Christianity in the nineteenth century. Philadelphia: Griffith Rowland Press, 2000. Print. This essay on Newman’s sermon on the feast of St. Monica in the year 1856 was written and submitted by user Karen Page to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Roman Technology and Engineering free essay sample

Technology and Engineering HIS 103 World Civilization I Tod Menzing April 29, 2013 Roman Technology and Engineering The Importance of Roman Technology and Engineering started really early. The Roman Empire took several hundred years to develop. The Romans were brilliant people, by the eleventh century, people of means had and appropriate skill level began to buy and sell goods. They sold wool for clothing and metal for tools and weapons for a profit in the local market. People were able to buy beautiful luxury goods at the market; everyone could not afford to spend money on fancy goods but was available for to anyone who could afford to do so. Merchants were allowed to control their business affairs. A union was developed which meant that the merchants were protected by a spokesperson that always had their interest for businessmen who were carpenters, spice merchants or glassmakers. The union sent a representative to protect Merchants concerning their investments and their brilliant marketing skills. We will write a custom essay sample on Roman Technology and Engineering or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Mahdavi, F. (2012) World History: Rome was an exceedingly large city and required a massive amount of grain to feed the population. Because the Romans were such intelligent people and their thinking skills were always well advanced so they came up with transporting grain by traveling the Mediterranean this way grains would get to them more quickly. The amount of wheat that it would take to feed the population was so great that they had to come up with a solution to feed them all. Ships were designed and grain merchants were responsible for supplying Rome, who might be senators, knights, or freedmen. The Romans came up with a solution by hiring from among knights and freedmen to man the ships to protect their investments. The romans developed companies and a way to keep records of transaction that were made while trading. They developed a method in with the shippers called Roman financing. Mahdavi, F. (2012) World History. Merchants and shippers were able to borrow conditional providing a safe return after a voyage. They developed an interest rate charge that was higher than usual while earning more money. The Roman developed a receipt system an example of how this process was used by marking cargo to determine ownership with other merchants. Another example of how grains were shipped and tested for purity was by opening a sealed container or a grain pouch to make sure the grain would be pure and not tampered with. The Romans developed brilliant ideas that were used that worked and proven effective. The Romans new how to be businessmen and took their trade very serious developed ways to be consistent and professional. References Mahdavi F. (2012) World History: The Human experience to 1500. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education http://www. jstor. org/stable The Scholarly source that I used was from the Ashford Library using the Data bases in the Ashford Library. I researched by the subject jstor provides information in full text for History, literature etc.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

crossword puzzle night Essays

crossword puzzle night Essays crossword puzzle night Paper crossword puzzle night Paper Essay Topic: Literature fast Elie did not do this on Yom Kippur bread the prisoners ate this and soup Birkenau the recepetion center for auschwitz elie the only son hitler one jew said he was the only one who had kept his promises moshe he tried to warn the jews in sighet: ____ the beadle tzipora the youngest of the wiesel children foot elie had surgery on his ____ tibi dreamed of going to haifa with elie and yossi stein mr wiesel didnt recongize this cousin drumer akiba _____ thought god was testing the jews chlomo elies fathers first name buna they walked here from auschwitz stern a tradesman turned policeman clean the men had to ___ the block before they evacuated star jews had to wear the yellow spoon elies inheritance was a knife and a ____ gestapo the german security police transylvania the country where elie wiesel grew up idek the kapo who had bouts of madness american an ____tank was at the gates of buchenwald bea the next eldest of the wiesel children zalman a polish boy who was trampled during the evacuation rosh the jewish new year death the idea began to fascinate elie during the evacaution schachter woman who had a vision of the furances Palestine elie wanted his family to move here beethoven jewish musicians were not allowed to play this composers music resistence this movement rescued the prisoners at buchenwald snowed it ____during the entire evacuation march eliahou the rabbi ___ was looking for his son sighet elie wiesel grew up in this town alphonse german jew who headed the block at buna passover the germans arrested the jewish leaders on the seventh day of ____ dysentery Mr wiesel had this ailment when he died mengele elie saw his notorious doctor russians they liberated the men in the hospital martha offered the family safe refuge in their village buchenwald mr wiesel died in this camp hospital elie and his father did not stay here but joined evauation yossi told elie he had not been written down

Thursday, November 21, 2019

International Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 25

International Business - Essay Example As the manager says, majority of the bottles are not originally made by the company. This reduces the cost of operations as they enter the new markets that make them to offer low priced products to the consumers hence attracting more sales than the competitors (Bradley, 2005). The company also uses well established names in the industry in form of franchising. This makes them to reduce the competition levels in the new acquisitions as the firm establishes on how to become stable in those economies. Coca cola also provides for joint ventures with the established firms. The firms are allowed to have substantial shares by contributing funds which provides the capital for investment and compete in the respective markets. From the strategies mentioned above, the company will offer reduced prices for the consumers and the forces of demand and supply will make us more prices reasonable in the market. While venturing onto the new countries, the organization ensured there was differentiation on the products (Bradley, 2005). This provided a wide consumer choice in the market that attracted more customers to our products increasing our sales on the respective countries. The company also provides unique products with unique logos that ensure customers do not confuse the organization products. The products are then taken through various promotional activities like in the media advertisements, open sales that are used to popularize the products in the market. Many nations do not allow free trade since they always wants to protect the local products. As a result we operate different distributions channels to ensure we exist all over the world. We recruit different organizations inform of franchised distribution channels. These firms are legalized and operate in our behalf to sale our products within the respective countries. There are also bottler firms who are situated in various countries (Bradley, 2005). To break the barriers, we

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Effect of YouTube on news media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Effect of YouTube on news media - Essay Example It is true that the new media is to a great extent democratic in its approach; still, there is no denying the fact that the new media is as vulnerable to doubtful news manipulation and sensationalism as the traditional news media. As per the surveys conducted in 2007, YouTube is the most visited website in the world, shadowed by only a few new media giants like Google.com, Yahoo.com and Baidu.com (Christensen, 2007, p. 36). Websites like YouTube have definitely democratized the process of news dissemination in the sense that they allow anyone to upload the news content without being censored, monitored, controlled or manipulated. However, YouTube is as much exposed to being exploited by the unscrupulous sources to broadcast falsified and objectionable content. YouTube amply allows the sources affiliated to unrestrained sensationalism to play with the viewer discretion and emotions. One of the most infamous examples in this context is that of ‘lonelygirl15’, a teenage blogger by the name of Bree, whose video clip revelations about the troubles and tribulations of growing up in modern times attracted gargantuan internet traffic of more than 37 million viewers on YouTube (Christensen, 2007, p. 37). To begin with the phenomenon signified the power of the new media, allowing a teenager with a webcam and a computer, sans media background being able to make millions of people around the world listen to what she had to say (Christensen, 2007, p. 37). However, it was in 2006 it was revealed that ‘lonelygirl15’ was the creation of two California based filmmakers (Christensen, 2007, p. 37). The final word was that though the falsity of the ‘lonelygirl15’ was revealed, the video clippings had astonishingly succe eded in creating a huge fan following for the internet celebrity, which could have been practically translated into favorable business ventures and endeavors. Thus YouTube has conclusively democratized the news media, yet

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Ethics of Information Communication Technology Dissertation - 1

Ethics of Information Communication Technology - Dissertation Example For the gathering of information and knowledge, the instrument that is required by all human beings is ICT, and security in this regard should be guaranteed to them as their basic right. However, throughout the world, the rights of humans are violated one way or the other. Violation of these rights has created new problems in the human social system like cybercrime, digital divide, digital security and privacy concerns for all of them. Round the globe, all of this has affected the lives of the people directly or indirectly (Sembok, 2003). This shows that due to the rising facilities of the global world, the related crimes are also increasing in the numbers. This increasing rate of the cyber crime has put the privacy and security of the individuals at stake. With such backdrop, this paper will discuss the types of cyber crimes and the upcoming frauds that are done by them. The objective of this paper is to highlight the effects of this crime and under the light of this crime, see the effects it has created on the economy of the United Kingdom. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of cyber crimes on the citizens, businesses, government, and the relevant interventions to deal with it. The range of cyber crimes is much diversified; so the paper will shed light on crimes such as child pornography, identity frauds to the individuals, tax and benefits fraud, NHS frauds, pension frauds, and local government and central government frauds faced by the government. The most affected sector is the business sector; so a major portion of the paper aims to cover this segment and discuss frauds like IP theft, industrial espionage, and online theft. Literature Review The literature review section initially discusses the general use of internet and the need of using this technology; it also talks about the crimes that result from this under the light of different kinds of literature. Then limiting to the topic, the paper aims at discussing the keyword: ‘Cyber Crime’. According to Nelson (2009) cybercrime is referred to as ‘the undertaken activities by the criminals for the financial gain’. He says that ‘such kinds of activities are used to take advantage of the vulnerabilities that are in use of the internet and other electronic systems. These systems illegitimately attack or access the information that is used by the businesses, citizens, and government.’ In this light, the paper will discuss the types of cybercrime and also talk about the ways these cyber crimes are taking place. A number of studies and researchers have been done in order to investigate the topic under discussion. However, this area needs to be researched more so that more valid and authentic conclusions can be drawn from the studies and the results could be applied to the society. The topic is chosen for my research, keeping in view its significance in the field and also, because of its importance in society. As it has been observed i n the societies that as people are getting more aware of the alarming nature of this issue and are interested in finding ways to help overcome this problem, more research work is needed in this area.  

Friday, November 15, 2019

Effect of Love Stories on Real Life

Effect of Love Stories on Real Life Okikioluwa Akinbiyi Akindele How do love stories (in the media) affect our understanding of romance in real life? Romance is something that exists all around us. It can be said that many of us grew up with hearing epic love stories such as Cinderella, Snow White and the likes. Romantic movies have played a significant role in the entertainment industry. According to a recent survey carried out by the U.S. Bureau of Labour Statistics, romance is the third highest grossing genre coming behind adventure and action which are 1st and 2nd respectively (USBLS, 2013). However these romantic movies and love stories have played a part in the distortion of the understanding and expectation of love in real life. According to Jake and Melissa Kircher, â€Å"because of media and technology, the ways in which people fall in love, connect within relationship and experience sexuality are different than any other generation before this one.† (Kircher, 2011). They go ahead to point out that the root of any romance is love. This over-emphasis on love in this generation is encouraged by the media that tells s tories, sings songs and writes books about how true love conquers all, is ultimately fulfilling, brings a never-ending wealth of happiness and is rarely marred by significant conflict. As beautiful a picture that is, it does not happen that way in real life. However, the tantalising and intriguing images which are seen by these people give them a certain picture on how romance should be. These people get disappointed when they realise that sometimes romance gets boring. The appeal of fantastic love stories is undeniable. (Galloway, 2011). According to Bachen and Illouz, the contemporary portrayals of romantic love are a â€Å"visual affair†, reiterating the fact that where the written word may fall short, images impressed upon us can elicit strong emotional arousal. They go ahead to explain that mediated images and representations-such as those used on television, in films and adverts- â€Å"evoke strong mechanisms of identification, are intensely realistic and are the privileged discourse of sexual and romantic desire â€Å"giving them an air of credibility.† (Bachen Illouz, 1996). Galican points out that the source of much appeal is the absolution of any real personal responsibility in a romantic relationship. (Galician, 2009). If a relationship fails miserably, then obviously â€Å"this one† was not â€Å"the one† and individuals must continue to wait patiently for their damsel in distress or knight in shining armour as is in the case of stories like Rapunzel, Snow White and so on. As people get attached to these images of romance from the media, they begin to yearn for a romance that is filled with happiness and personal fulfilment. When it does not happen this way, these people believe that love is gone and this has led to the end of beautiful relationships that would have created ultimate happiness for both parties (Kircher, 2011). I will investigate, using relevant literature, and find out to what extent epic love stories affect our understanding of love in real life. I will then outline my proposed methodology which will be used and I will give the potential implications. Literature Review Movies as mass communication Many epic love stories are produced to the public in the form of movies. When one thinks of movies, the cinema immediately springs to mind. Over the years the cinema has been a neutral destination where couples go on dates, single people look for romance, friends go to relax, or to just have good family fun. According to Matzkin (1999) cited in Galloway (2011) movie audiences have become more â€Å"fragmented† and â€Å"homogenous† since the cinema’s inception and are â€Å"largely composed of young movie goers between the ages of 12 and 29† (Galloway, 2011). In the USA and Canada alone, multitudes numbering approximately 1,343,000,000, visit the cinemas each year. (Motion Picture Association of America, 2013). However more and more people are beginning to reduce their movie going because they would rather rent movies ands stay at home for free rather than pay at the cinema. Also staying at home saves time and energy as mobility is reduced. The advancement of technology has made the movie watching experience a lot better and more engaging. With the creation of 3D TV screens and surround sound system, movie viewers are able to have and enjoy the cinema experience in the comfort of their homes. Accordig to Anne Jackel ‘†¦powerful players in the film industry argued that a larger number of screens would provide greater diversity and more choice. (Albertazzi Cobley, 2010). She goes on to point that digital distribution offers a wider choice and has the capability to promote cultural diversity. The use of the internet is another way people are able to access these movies. With the ability to stream videos online, infrequent theater goers are able to watch newly released movies in the comfort of their own homes. With the furtherance of digital technology, viewers are susceptible to watch these movies and allow themselves be fed with different love myths. Love Myths â€Å"A basic function of the media is the creation of representation or simulations- reproduced versions of reality† (Foss, Foss, Trapp, 2002). There are certain themes or rather myths that are usually present in romantic stories which has an effect on the audience. Cassady Green (2013) points out that the audience often leaves the movie theatre yearning for a love similar to the one on the silver screen. She goes ahead to explain the problems involved as women and adolescents begin to expect similar qualities in their own love life, many of which are improbable or even unobtainable in reality. One prevalent myth in love stories is the notion of the soul mate. Two parties being â€Å"destined† or â€Å"made† for one another. These stories or movies leads to both soulmates finding each other. In the movie â€Å"Down To Earth (Weitz Weitz, 2001), Lance played by Chris Rockrides is riding on his bike when he spots Sontee(Regina King). They both share a moment of attraction. Unfortunately he is hit and killed by a truck, prematurely. To fix the mistake he is offered the body of an old grouchy unloving billionaire. When he sees Sontee at the billionaire’s house, he believes that Sontee is his soulmate and hence agres to take the body of Charles Wellington III, just to be with her. In the short while before he is killed, Lance and Sontee fall in love while Lance is still in the body of the old man. Even after he is killed and he comes back as another person, Joe Guy, who is not supposed to remember anybody from Lance’s past, he is still able to make some sort of connection with Sontee and the movie ends with both of them going out for coffee. This reiterates the myth of soulmates: no matter what happens both parties are destined to end up together. Cassady Green (2013) observes that â€Å"soulmates is a notion that can be particularly detrimental to real life relationships. This is because viewers are led to believe that they can have a one of a kind relationship which is special and unlike no one else’s. The likelihood of this happening is very slim and this goes a long way in explaining the impact these stories have on the viewer. Also there are instances where one person has incredibly strong feelings for someone, a â€Å"love epiphany† so to say. These movies give viewers the impression that it is not strange for someone to suddenly getstrong feelings of love for nother person. This has the power to lead to the dissatisfaction of one’s ownlove life due to the high expectations that viewers have for th eir relationships which are demonstrated in popular films. Another love myth is the notion of ‘love at first sight’. According to Gallician (2004) cited by Galloway (2011), â€Å"In the â€Å"reel† world, there is, in fact, â€Å"such a thing as love at first sight†. A fleeting gaze exchanged in a minute’s time registers as a moment of revelation, foreshadowing the fulfillment of an otherworldly bond between two strangers whose fates are inextricably intertwined. Often visual portrayals of these two myths emphasize the loneliness and lack that plagues one’s life prior to finding his or her â€Å"one and only.† (Galloway, 2011). This myth already conditions the mind of the viewer to believe that if in real life, a scenario where they come in contact with other people for the first- if that moment does not contain characteristics of a â€Å"love at first sight† moment, then the relationship is not meant to be. Another myth that we are shown in romantic stories is the idea that ‘all you need is love’. (Galician, 2009) This is when people begin to behave out of reason just because of love. According to Galloway (2011), â€Å"characters in television shows and movies give up or alter their own systems of belief in exchange for affection†. Characters in these stories believe that ‘problems will work themselves out in the name of love’ (Galloway, 2011). An example is The Little Mermaid (Clements Musker, 1989) where the protagonist,Ariel chooses to trade her voice for human parts just because she fell in love with Prince Eric. At the end of the movie, she gets her voice and still stays a human. This gives viewers the idea that because of love, you are able to have your cake and eat it. In the story of Snow White, where she had eaten the fruit and had gone into a deep sleep. It was an act of love, a kiss from a prince that broke the spell and woke her up and the â€Å"lived happily ever after†. The 2013 film â€Å"Frozen† is another example of how love is the ultimate. After plunging the kingdom into a never ending winter, Elsa finally realises that love is the way to end the problem. (Buck Lee, 2013). Another myth that is portrayed in the romantic stories is the idea that â€Å"the love of a good woman can change a man from a â€Å"beast† in to a â€Å"prince† (Galician, 2009). An example is the movie Beauty and The Beast (Trousdale Wise, 1991). Through the ‘power of love’ and the â€Å"goodness of her heart† Belle was able to change the scary, abusive,monstrous Beast into a handsome loving prince. According to Mary-Lou Galician, (2009), â€Å"Belle’s attempts to reform her captor would be most unwise in real life. We cannot change others- especially not abusive â€Å"heroes† who have a good heart inside if only the woman can be â€Å"good enough† to bring it out. This fallacy underlies much domestic violence.† Social Cognitive Theory This is a theory that suggests that individuals commit to memory behaviours they have observed to be later used as models on which to base their own behaviour. (Green, 2013). These behaviours are more likely to be modeled when they have been modeled by accompllished people whom the world agrees with and if the outcome of the behaviour appeals to the audience. When we talk about romantic stories in this case, the theory suggests that the audience may actively observe the behaviour within relationships depicted by the media in order to gain understanding in how they themselves could behave in their own relationships. (Green, 2013). This theory works for fashion trends also. If a celebrity decides to make a fashion choice, chances are that trend will take off and everyone will begin to dress as such. An example is David Beckham. Over theyears, he has managed to set trends for young men, especially in the UK when it comes to hairstyles. According to SS, (SS, 2009)â€Å"Beckhams differen t hairdos are talked about just as much as his soccer skills, and a new season often means a great new style.† Proposed Methodology I plan to organise a focus group comprising of people from different courses at my university. In this focus group, the main theme will be my topic: How love stories affect our understanding of love and romance in real life. We would also be discussing other questions like â€Å"what do you think is the reason why people believe the notions embedded within these stories and also what they feel about the importance of language within stories. I plan to do this because I would like to find oout According to Galloway(2011) content analyses of romantic media are useful. I would implement this methodology because one may find that the nature of modern movies has evolved to represent realistic relationships or regressed, depicting only mythic love storie (Galloway, 2011). Also I am planning to conduct an interview with members of a book club and get their views on romance from romantic books they have all read. In addition to organising the focus group, I plan to make use of questionnaires to carry out a survey. My aim of the questionnaires is to find out which gender is easily persuaded or more prone to believe the romantic myths given to us by media producers. I intend to utilise the questionnaire used by Lauren Galloway (2011) in her article. ‘Does Movie viewing cultivate unrealistic expectations about love and marriage’ as a guideline in building my own survey questionnaires. I would use the results and findings I have gathered to develop a series of recommendations concerning love stories and their ability to deceive us into believing something that we are not supposed to. So these are the three methodologies I intend to use to tacke this research: focus group and interviews, content analysis and discourse analysis. The Association of Qualitative Research (AQR, 2013) defines the Focus group/interviews as a â€Å"term often applied to a group discussion carried out for market research purposes. Participants unknown to each other are brought together, in a particular neutral location, for the specific purpose of discussing an issue, or responding to ideas or materials of interest to the client of the research.† In this case, focus groups are important because they are useful in finding out an audience’s opinion on the representation of romance in movies. Content analysis is another interesting way because it shows how often something is represented. Satu Elo and Helvi Kyngas (2007) define content analysis as a method of analysing documents. Content analysis allows the researcher to test theoretical issues to enhance understanding of the dat a. (Elo Kyngas, 2007) In this case, it is important to know how often romance is represented in the movies and stories. Finally, discourse analysis/semiotics can be defined as explicit, systematic account of structures, strategies or processes of text or talk in terms of theoretical notions developed in any branch of the field. (Dijk, 2013) exists to find out what the representation means. Videography Buck, C., Lee, J. (Directors). (2013). Frozen [Motion Picture]. Clements, R., Musker, J. (Directors). (1989). The Little mermaid [Motion Picture]. Trousdale, G., Wise, K. (Directors). (1991). Beauty and The Beast [Motion Picture]. Weitz, C., Weitz, P. (Directors). (2001). Down To Earth [Motion Picture] Bibliography Albertazzi, D., Cobley, P. (2010). The Media: An Introduction. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. America, M. P. (2013). Theatrical Market Statistics. USA. AQR. (2013). Focus group. Retrieved April 2014, from Association of qualitative research: http://www.aqr.org.uk/glossary/?term=focusgroup Bachen, C. M., Illouz, E. (1996). Imagining romance: Young peoples cultural models of romance and love. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, pp. 279-308. Dijk, T. A. (2013, November 1). What do we mean by Discourse Analysis. 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David Beckham: Hairstyles of a Celebrity Trendsetter. Retrieved April 2014, from Thehairstyler.com: http://www.thehairstyler.com/features/articles/celebrity/david-beckham-celebrity-trendsetters USBLS. (2013, January 1). Motion Picture Industry Statistics. Retrieved April 2014, from Statistic Brain: http://www.statisticbrain.com/motion-picture-industry-statistics/